Nummer 1/2012


Von der Redaktion PDF Datei in Deutsch

A  R  T  I  K  E  L:

Zdzisław J. Czarnecki, Die Erlösung im Verstand – Dilemmas und Aporien des Rationalismus im 17. Jahrhundert PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch

This article is concerned with analyzing processes that were unfolding during the end of the Renaissance and the mid seventeenth century, which were to form the basis for the development of modern thought. The beginning of these processes is the anthropological and epistemological breakdown in the optimism of the early Renaissance and a turn towards: (1) a pessimistic evaluation of human nature; (2) the skeptical negation of the value of human cognition; (3) questioning religious certainties in confrontation with the deepening (also as a the result of the Reformation) of religious pluralism; (4) questioning previously recognised foundations of moral order; (5) and social order. This article aims to demonstrate that the seventeenth century endeavoured to overcome these tendencies by finding a basis of general unity and order in human reason. This constituted a special antidote to the chaos of the changing and irrational theoretical and social reality. The effects included: (1) the founding of an extremely rationalistic conception of the human being; (2) extreme rationalism in the theory of cognition; (3) the emergence of deism and „natural religion”; (4) the rational and universal ethical and political system. Yet in all of these fields, the search for salvation through reason proved theoretically helpless when confronted with the real complexity of phenomena. The concept of the human being as ens rationale was possible only at the price of the degradation of feelings; a priori epistemology was condemned to construct worlds different from the empirical one; natural theology proved to be helpless when faced with the wealth in forms of religious life; the universal and absolute ethical system requires the depreciation of the diversity of human aims; the theory of the social contract required a questioning of the social and historical character of the human being. These difficulties of seventeenth-century rationalism became the point of departure for later philosophical thought, in particular the philosophy of Hume, Vico, Kant and Hegel.

Keywords: reason, salvation, seventeenth century rationalism, cognition, deism, politics

Waldemar Prusik, Der Begriff der personalen Freiheit bei Max Scheler PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch

This article constitutes a critical analysis of M. Scheler’s understanding of freedom. Scheler demonstrates freedom as a „potency” or „power” (Können) of the will, which is the basis for the freedom of choice and action. Thus, freedom is a personal habitus (Gesamthabitus innerer Freisein); its essence is given in an internal (intentional) feeling, but not in a theoretical consideration. This signifies that the consciousness of freedom is a consciousness of independence of a higher (superior) sphere (centrum) of person from the lower one (spirit from psyche, psyche from vital sphere, vital sphere from the sensual). If freedom is realized in an order of acts of the will, then it is realized in acts of the will and it becomes a „motivated” will. An internal feeling of value (as the motive) is represented as subjective necessity of the will and it therefore makes the will not passive, but rational and free. The reasonable will is a will determined by the motive, given in an internal experience. Thus the freedom of the will is the will „motivated”, i. e., caused by the consciousness of necessity. In this context, freedom is a direct consciousness of indispensable reason; it gains a Neo-Platonian connotation.

Keywords: Max Scheler, Person, Ethik,  Freiheit, Bewusstheit der Freiheit, Wille

Tomasz Siwiec, Philosophische Ethik als normative kritische Reflexion  PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch

Distinguishing philosophical ethics from morality, the author defines the former by indicating its normative, reflective and critical disposition. The author agrees with Robert Spaemann that philosophical ethics cannot be treated as a theory of morality; it has to be understood rather as a reflection that elucidates cognitively not only the object to be studied, but also the studying subject. In the next part of his article, the author explains the normative nature of ethics and refers to the typology of moral norms by Georg Henrik von Wright. According to this typology, the normativity of philosophical ethics does not reduce itself to a specificity of rules, prescriptions and directives. In the third and last part of the article the author, in reference to Nicolai Hartmann, postulates the three-level method of ethical research. On the first level of research, ethics should be the domain of the phenomenology of morality; on the second level – the aporetic of morality; on the third level – the theory of morality. This three-level method of research could make philosophical ethics critical to its attempts and findings, which is indispensable.

Keywords: ethics, morality, normativity, norms

Stefan Konstańczak, Im Schatten von Holocaust. Der Entwurf »homo patiens« von Hans Jonas PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch

Homo patiens is a human being who suffers continuously even because of the fact of his/her existence. In his work The Concept of God after Auschwitz, Hans Jonas posed a difficult question which he directed to everybody: politicians, philosophers, priests, theologians and ordinary people: Here we have gone through the most traumatic experience in human history – the Holocaust. This has a collective character because it has been experienced by all of humankind but also separately by every person of Jewish nationality; what kind of knowledge about evil and human suffering has been evoked by this experience? This question was really justified because soon after the end of the war ideas were articulated that „the problem of Auschwitz has been solved once and for all, valid sentences have been passed, and the evidence has finally been established”. Already in 1939 Hans Jonas was fully conscious of the objectives of Hitler’s nationalistic policy, which aimed at the complete extermination of the Jewish nation. Therefore, immediately after the outbreak of the war he published a fiery appeal „Our Part in This War: A Word to Jewish Men” directed to young Jewish people all over the world, where he wrote: „This is our hour, this is our war. […] This [ is] a bellum judaicum [Jewish war] in the profoundest sense of the word”. This text was published in Jerusalem in September 1939 and includes an extremely accurate characterisation of Nazism and its aims. For Jonas however, the matter was not so obvious. Auschwitz was for him a personal experience because he lost his mother there. According to biographers and analysts of his writings, he never recovered from the trauma related to this. Therefore, in his treaty Jonas – as if – struggles with himself. He analyzes two classical theodicies, one of which is a prompting of the witnesses of Job’s lot – you suffer because you have sinned. Yet, this is a proper explanation for an individual but not for a whole nation, and especially not for innocent children and babies. The other form of theodicy considered by Jonas is a prompting of theologians – you suffer together with God for what you believe in. Thus we give a certificate of faith – all the worst is becoming the share of the innocent and righteous: “the innocent and the just suffer the worst”. And this explanation collapses upon deeper analysis because the Holocaust concerned not those who believe (believers of Judaism) but those who are Jews by their birth, even if they had not believed for generations. Jonas therefore diverted relations between God and the human being. God, creating the world and his works, lost his omnipotence voluntarily because he retreated to leave a place for the world. The final conclusion of Jonas is as follows: God resigned from his power so that we could exist.

Keywords: Holocaust, Ethics, Hans Jonas, Nazism, theodicie

Emilia Zimnica-Kuzioła, Hauptstandpunkte in der Psychologie der Religion – eine Einführung PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch

This article aims to provide a synthetic interpretation of the problems of the psychology of religion (the tradition and the present). The author discusses three issues: the academic status of the psychology of religion (as a subdiscipline of general psychology), the main concepts of the psychology of religion (psychoanalytic, behaviouristic, humanistic, historical and cognitive) and sources of religious faith from a psychological viewpoint. The psychology of religion is a subdiscipline of general psychology, which deals with the analysis of individual religiosity. The individual is the subject who experiences the sacred. The phenomenon of religiousness is explicated by genetic theories (developmental psychology and evolutionary psychology, i.e., ontogenetic and phylogenetic approaches) and by functional theories (the role of religion in individual life). Religion can perform the following functions in the life of an individual: it can give deeper meaning to human existence, strengthen one’s sense of security, ease fears, create community bonds. Bahaviourism is based on the proposition that the human being is a passive respondent to environmental influences. According to psychoanalytic theory, the human being is affected by internal dynamic forces, such as instinctual drives or contradictory aspirations. The cognitive theory grants more autonomy to the human being who processes information creatively, acquires knowledge and reaches existential conclusions by him/herself. The atheist approach explains religiosity in terms of mental processes, without vertical references. The humanistic theory focuses on the aspiration of the human being to self-development, assumes the existence of progressive tendencies in spiritual, emotional, physical and intellectual development. It should be stressed that psychological perspectives do not settle ontological problems. Their authors ought to avoid questions concerning the real existence of the subject of religious relation and focus their attention on the human being and his/her psychological needs and experiences. These factors should be considered when the issue of individual religiousness is examined. In practice, numerous theoretical psychologists have entered the field of metaphysics, forming unauthorized judgements about the existence or non-existence of God. G. W. Allport claims that the psychology of religion cannot fully explain the complex phenomenon of individual religiosity. Taking into account philosophical and theological perspectives provides a chance to gain a complete and unreduced picture.

Keywords: psychology, religion, psychology of religion

Anna Ziółkowska, Die Wahrheit der Kunst und die Wirklichkeit. Die Ästhetik von Hans-Georg Gadamer gegenüber ausgewählten Phänomenen der modernen Kunst PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch

Hans-Georg Gadamer combines the experience of art with the experience of truth. Dealing with art impacts strongly upon human existence. Reality and art – despite their different ontological status – remain together in a dynamic relationship. This article consist of two parts. The first one considers Gadamer’s aesthetics. Taken into account are such issues as: hermeneutical aesthetic experience, the ontological status of art, truth of art and relationship between art and reality. The second part confronts Gadamer’s aesthetics with some forms of contemporary art such as: happening, performance and pop art. This article focuses on the consequences which result from this confrontation for the truth of art and its relationship to reality.

Keywords: art, truth of art, H.-G. Gadamer, aesthetics

Mateusz Palka, “Fotoinstallationen” von Krzysztof Cichosz PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch

This article presents a comprehensive study on the original photography technique called photoinstallations, developed by Krzysztof Cichosz. In his works, the artist critically analyzes the functioning of images in contemporary culture. The discussed photographic objects have been made by the use of other photographs that are placed in a new context, which deconstructs their original meaning. As the basis for the interpretation of the artist’s methodology served the philosophical and historical theories of Walter Benjamin, the concept of quotation proposed by Guy Debord which restores the lost meaning of the text, and the considerations of John Berger who analyzes the historically conditioned issues of originality in the arts.

Keywords: photoinstallation, photography, art , Krzysztof Cichosz

R  E  Z  E  N  S  I  O  N  E  N :

Eliza Krupińska: Zbigniew Skowron, Myśl muzyczna Jeana-Jacquesa Rousseau, Wyd. UW, Warszawa 2010, S. 328 PDF Datei in Polnisch

Paulina Okraj: Cezary Mordka, Świadomość, świat i spostrzeżenie. Zarys zagadnień, Wydawnictwo UMCS, Lublin 2009, S. 367 PDF Datei in Polnisch

Mateusz Palka: Walter Benjamin, Berlińskie dzieciństwo na przełomie wieków, Aletheia, Warszawa 2010, ss. 222 PDF Datei in Polnisch

B  E  R  I  C  H  T  E :

Jan Burnatowski, Amerika von Miłosz (Krakau) PDF Datei in Polnisch

Barbara Czardybon, „Neue Ontologien in Deutschland. Die Tradition des Postneukantianismus in Deutschland und Russland (Krakau, 10.-11- Januar 2012) PDF Datei in Polnisch

Dawid Kolasa, Die geistige Situation der Zeit – 80 Jahre später (Krakau, der 26. Oktober 2011) PDF Datei in Polnisch

A  U  T  H O  R  E  N:

JAN BURNATOWSKI, Magister, Doktorand an der Jagiellonen-Universität
BARBARA CZARDYBON, Magister, Absolventin der Philosophie, Doktorandin am Institut für Philosophie der Jagiellonen-Universität
ZDZISŁAW JERZY CZARNECKI, Professor, Rektor der Hochschule für Unternehmertum und Verwaltung in Lublin, langjähriger Professor und Dekan der Fakultät für Philosophie und Sozialwissenschaften an der UMCS in Lublin
DAWID KOLASA, Magister, Absolvent der Philosophie, Doktorand am Institut der Philosophie der Nikolaus-Kopernikus-Universität
STEFAN KONSTAŃCZAK, Doktor habil., außerordentlicher Professor der Universität Grünberg, Leiter des Lehrstuhls für Ethik am Institut für Philosophie der UG
ELIZA KRUPIŃSKA, Magister, Absolventin der Musikwissenschaft, Doktorandin am Institut für Philosophie der Jagiellonen-Universität
PAULINA OKRAJ, Magister, Absolventin der Philosophie, Doktorandin am Institut für Philosophie der UMCS
MATEUSZ PALKA, Magister, Absolvent der Kulturwissenschaft, Doktorand am Institut für Philosophie der Universität in Wrocław
WALDEMAR PRUSIK, Doktor, Adjunkt am am Institut der Philosophie der Stettiner Universität
TOMASZ SIWIEC, Magister, Absolvent der Philosophie, Doktorand am Institut der Philosophie der Nikolaus-Kopernikus-Universität
EMILIA ZIMNICA-KUZIOŁA, Doktor, Adjunkt am Institut für Sozialwissenschaften der Universität Łódź
ANNA ZIÓŁKOWSKA, Doktor, Adjunkt am Lehrstuhl für Ästhetik am Institut für Philosophie der Adam-Mickiewicz-Universität in Posen.

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