From the Editorial Board
A R T I C L E S:
Marin Krawczyk, Beyond Absolutism and Relativism. Richard Rorty’s Anti-Antiethnocentrism
The article focuses on a critical presentation of Richard Rorty`s conception of morality. It can be characterized by an attempt to go beyond the opposition between absolutism and relativism, thus leading to finding a solution that would avoid the weaknesses of both positions, and – at the same time – be free from fundamentalism, dogmatism and axiological nihilism. Such a solution is seen by Rorty in the anti-antiethnocentrism which treats values and moral norms as historical and cultural artifacts devoid of unconditional and absolute character, whereas morality is perceived as a set of customs, behaviors and practices that a given society and culture approve of. Rorty`s anti-antiethnocentrism is distinguished from relativism by the rejection of a belief that various systems of values are equally valuable and that they cannot be judged from the perspective of other frameworks. It is distinguished from absolutism by a countinouous highlighting that – although Western values are not something absolutely and objectively good – they are nonetheless worth of preservation and promotion in the world.
Keywords: ethnocentrism, absolutism, relativism, morality
Krzysztof Rojek, Counterfactual Intervention as a Theoretical and Practical Risk to Freedom. A Critical Analysis of the Frankfurt Cases
Contemporary, ontological and comprehensive analysis of the category of free will necessitates an interdisciplinary approach. One of the fields that have to be taken into account includes contemporary ethics combined with the issue of moral responsibility for an action. The Principle of Alternate Possibilities (PAP), warped by Harry Gordon Frankfurt, a leading representative of compatibilism, appears to be an appropriate example demonstrating this relationship. The aim of this article is to present the historical context of the problem and an analysis of Frankfurt Cases, including the famous example of Black’s counterfactual intervention. The juxtaposition of different contemporary definitions of free will and of the controversial points therein will be relevant in assessing the accuracy of Frankfurt’s solution. Critical conclusions reached in this paper may also contribute to the ongoing? debate on the issue of free will.
Keywords: counterfactual intervention, free will, compatibilism, principle of alternate possibilities, Frankfurt cases
Kamil Szymański, Samuel P. Huntington’s Debate with Francis Fukuyama
Reviewed is Francis Fukuyama’s theory of the “end of history” formulated in the context of Samuel Huntington’s criticism contained in his essay “No Exit –The Errors of Endism”. Presented are the differences in the perception of the “end of history” by these authors and other critics of the theory as formulated with reference to Hegel. Pointed out are some similarities in the often mutually contrasting conceptions advanced by Huntington and Fukuyama.
Keywords: Fukuyama, Huntington, Hegel, the end of history, the clash of civilizations
Barbara Grabowska, Mary Wollstonecraft and the Beginnings of Feminism during the Age of Enlightenment
Mary Wollstonecraft disagrees with J. J. Rousseau and rejects the model of separate education for boys and girls. She proves that it is not the nature, but rather the education itself what shapes the characters and the behaviour of girls in such a way that they become weak and too emotional. She queries the valid feminine models, which – in her opinion – destroy both body and character of girls and women. She proposes a new model of education and upbringing, common for both sexes. She convinces that – as a result – women would not only become happier but even more useful – both for their families and the whole society.
Keywords: feminism, protofeminism, femininity, education
Tomasz Stefaniuk, Religious, Cultural and Social Functions of the Mosque
The primary function of every mosque is to provide adequate space for performing prayers, and in particular the congregational prayers – on Friday, holiday and others occasions. This does not mean, however, that the mosque should be understood solely as a Muslim “house of prayer”. This is, among others, because in Islam the religious practices do not limit themselves to prayer. Analysis of source texts of Islam, i.e. the Quran and Hadiths, as well as recognition of the development of a mosque in a historical perspective, shows that the mosque is not just a building, but a kind of “center of Islam”, fully performing various functions. These are – besides religious purposes – primarily social, cultural, educational, representative and administrative functions.
Keywords: Islam, Islamic, religion, Muslim, Muslims, mosque
R E V I E W S:
Krzysztof Rojek, Why “bullshit” is more dangerous than a lie? Review: H. G. Frankfurt, O wciskaniu kitu, Czuły Barbarzyńca Press, Warszawa 2008 (80 p.)
R E P O R T S :
Krzysztof Rojek, What and how we recognize through images? – The Second Edition, Kazimierz Dolny, 2–4 September 2015
Krzysztof Rojek, The Second National Conference on Philosophy EPISTEME 2015, Lublin, 12–13 December 2015
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