Issue 15 /2015

15 /2015

ed. by Honorata Jakuszko


From the Editorial Board fulltext.pdf (in English)

Honorata Jakuszko, Debates over the Enlightenment fulltext.pdf (in English)

T H E M E   A R T I C L E S:

Stanisław Janeczek, The Role of the Christian Enlightenmentin the Culture of the Eighteenth Century fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and German)

This paper has been written in the spirit of the history of intellectual culture, and it discusses the problems of the specific ideological culture of the eighteenth century. Contrary to the influential views held by many historians who stress the dominant process of secularization in the culture of the Enlightenment, the paper indicates that despite rationalist elements Christianity remained an integral element of the culture of this epoch. By virtue of analyses conducted on the grounds of scientific culture and education, therefore the most fundamental tools of popularization of the then culture, we are entitled even to state that Christians inspiration was not only an essential, but actually basic point of reference for eighteenth-century culture. Thus in the spirit of the so-called long duration (longue durée), underlined by contemporary historiography, the so-called religious enlightenment, above all Christian Enlightenment is not only a cultural fact, but it does make up the mainstream Enlightenment.

Keywords: XVIIIth century; Enlightenment; Christianity and culture

Marta Szymańska-Lewoszewska, Georege Berkely’s Irish Patriotism between 1734 and 1753 fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and German)

The article provides an analysis of the works written by George Berkeley when he was a bishop of Cloyne in Ireland between 1734 and 1753. The analysis is conducted in the context of the Irish Protestant patriotism of the first half of the 18th century, the characteristic of which is provided in the first part of the article. The second part is devoted to Berkeley’s engagement in improving life of the society in Ireland in different aspects, i.e. religious, economic, and socio–political. The result of the analysis is an interpretation of the meaning of Berkeley’s Irish patriotism based on the concept of aiming at the good of the whole. Its reference differed for Berkeley in the particular moments of the contemporary history of Ireland. In theory it meant mankind as such. Practically, it referred to the Church of England, the territory of Ireland, or the British Empire.

Keywords: Berkeley, Ireland, 18th century Irish patriotism, protestantism

Tomasz Stefaniuk, Natural Religion and Criticism on Relevation in Matthew Tindal’s Philosophy fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and German)

The article focuses on criticism on revelation which is present among British deists, such as Herbert of Cherbury, William Wollaston, Thomas Chubb, John Toland and Anthony Collins. Particular attention is devoted to the views of Matthew Tindal, who is remembered primarily as the author of Christianity as Old as the Creation. Tindal, like the other deists, assumes that enlightened – i.e. freed from all the restraining bonds, especially from superstition – human mind is the final arbiter on all issues, including those related to religion. He distinguishes external revelation, i.e. the books considered to be revealed by God, as well as internal revelation – which means Nature revealing itself to human rational mind.

Keywords: Matthew Tindal, deism, natural religion, rationalism, Revelation, criticism on religion

Pierre Bayle’s Historical and critical dictionary and Its British Readers fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and German)

The article reconstructs the influence the thought of Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), the French philosopher and historian, had on British enlightenment philosophers and men of letters. The reason of his deep impact was the success of three succcessive English editions of his greatest work, namely Historical and critical dictionary (1697). To Bayle’s thought indebted were both eighteenth-century freethinkers and deists (Toland, Shaftesbury, Mandeville, Collins) and most eminent British empiricists (Locke, Berkeley, Hume), though its reception was frequently accompanied by various misunderstandings.

Keywords: Pierre Bayle, British enlightenment, scepticism, empiricism, Shaftesbury, Locke, Berkeley, Hume

Zbigniew Pietrzak, On the Possibilities and Limitations of the Mathematisation of Biological Studies in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and German)

During the 17th and 18th centuries natural sciences were undergoing a mathematization. This process consisted, among other, in a quantitative approach to objects being researched; in delivering mathematical definitions for fundamental concepts and in shaping mathematical structures of natural sciences. The mathematization understood as a process was depended on some philosophical ideas already present in sciences, what might or might not start up the process of mathematization. Specificity of biological sciences rested on the fact they were being established by philosophical ideas, such as aristotelianism, vitalism, organicism or mechanicism, which referred to the notion of soul, will, experience.

Keywords: mathematization, biology, mechanics, vitalism, organicism, soul, force, motion

Tomasz Kupś, Between the Enlightenment and Scholasticism: Selected Problems of the Reception of Kant’s Philosophy in the Polish Philosophy of the Early Nineteenth Century and the Perspectives of New Research fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and Geman)

The aim of this article is to outline general characteristics of the conditions of the first reception (in the early decades of the 19th century) of the philosophy of Kant in Poland. Its direction and nature as well as suspension or end often depended on nonsubstantive (i.e. institutional, social, and political) factors. Under these conditions, positions on the philosophy of Kant became easily polarized between the ones based on groundless prejudices on the one hand and uncritical enthusiasm on the other. First (1) I characterize briefly the reasons why the 19th-century Polish reception of the philosophy of Kant can be regarded as a tension between „enlightenment” and „scholasticism”(although those terms do not necessarily have to mean here what historians of philosophy refer to with their help). Then, (2) I provide a brief presentation of the specificity of the first reception of the philosophy of Kant and the representatives of the main opposing positions (Szaniawski, Wigura, Śniadecki). Finally (3) I outline some possible directions for further research into the first stage of the reception of the philosophy of Kant in Poland and present examples of new discoveries.

Keywords: history of modern philosophy, Immanuel Kant, reception, enlightenment, archivalresearch, interpretation

Paweł Sikora, Kant’s Transcendentalism and the Problem of Conceptualism in the Present Philosophy of Perception fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and German)

Kantian transcendentalism describes the synthetic character of our cognition and represents the anticipation of conceptualism which is widely discussed on the field of the analytic philosophy of perception today. I will try to present the main pillars of Kant’s philosophy as they are present in several key standpoints of the contemporary philosophy of the perception and I will attempt to show how we can understand the reality of the objects of experience based on the thesis of conceptualism. I will also try to show why conceptualism can make up the essence of varied positions in the philosophy of perception, independently from differences in comprehension of the object of perception. The present dispute along the lines of conceptual content vs. non-conceptual content in the reference to Kant’s philosophy must also concern the problem of the reality of things itself, despite that the notion of reality for many standpoints of the philosophy of perception refers only to the world of possible experience.

Keywords: Immanuel Kant, perception, perceptual content, conceptualism, realism

R E P O R T S :

Kamil Szymański, „Trwałość – nietrwałość – globalizacji”, Wroclaw, 23 October 2015 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Licencja Creative Commons