Issue 2/2012


From the Editorial Board fulltext.pdf (in English)

S  C  H  O  L  A  R  L  Y    A  R  T  I  C  L  E  S:

Stanisław Janeczek, Between Nature and Culture? Hugo Kołłątaj’s Conception of Religion fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This paper discusses Kołłątaj’s contribution to the development of modern reflection on religion. It manifests a stronger tendency towards a rationalistic and naturalistic bias, a fact which leads to the reflection on the nature of religion as such, and not only as one of its confessional forms. The eighteenth century saw also a more empirical approach, which was a result of how science was understood in modernity when it was modelled on natural philosophy. This accounts, on the one hand, for a peculiar pre-positivistic fear of autonomically-comprehended philosophy that may be pursued only within the context of the applied sciences. On the other hand, it emphasised the importance of the historical method, which was closer to the mentality of science narrowly understood. Such factors would bear fruit in Kołłątaj’s approach to the form of reflection on the cultural and social compound of religious phenomena. The philosophy of God, in its metaphysical form, would largely be replaced by a psychological and historical-cultural reflection on the functions of religion than on the nature of religion itself. Kołłątaj retains, however, the principal theses of the Christian outlook. Yet in view of philosophical minimalism, the justification of their legitimacy is conveyed to theology as the legitimate method of knowledge, although different from science understood by way of scientism. In his approach, religion is not only a result of human reflection on the condition of the cosmos, but it also comes from the Divine Providence revealed to the human being in a strictly religious sense, in the form of religious revelation. It is therefore bound with human nature, made manifest in culture that affects it, but it also equally transcends nature and culture. Eventually, Kołłątaj’s conception of religion is a manifestation of what one calls the Christian Enlightenment which functions within the Enlightenment religiosity that is rationalistically and moralistically biased.

Keywords: Enlightement, philosophy of religion, Hugo Kołłątaj.


Agata Grzyb, A Problematic Case of the Critique of Reason in the Frankfurt School and in the Philosophy of Michel Foucault fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This article deals with the problem of the critique of reason, considered here in two contemporary approaches: that of the Frankfurt School and of Michel Foucault. The aim is to analyze both perspectives, to compare them and to question the validity of both critiques. Causes for undertaking such a critical philosophy are also considered. While reconstructing the ways of thinking about reason, two common points are found to be the most import_ant: the historicism of reason and its origins in the ideas of power and domination. These points appear to be the source of the strongest arguments against reason for both approaches, but they have also made their critique dangerous for their own convictions. The critical comparison between Michel Foucault and the Frankfurtians also serves as a pretext for posing a more general question: how and in which conditions is the critique of reason possible to be performed in philosophy at all?

Keywords: reason, critique, history, domination, madness.


Kamil Piskała, Poland’s Interwar Socialist Thought towards Marx and Marxism. Main Trends in the Reception of the Marxist Heritage in the Manifestoes and Commentary of the Polish Socialist Party, 1918€-1939 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This article attempts to present the main elements of Poland’s interwar Socialist interpretation of Marxism and its theoretical heritage. The Polish Socialist Party (PPS) in the interwar period was a rather pragmatic party, but had defined itself as strictly Marxist. In the view of party leaders, the core of Marxism was the theory of historical materialism which they considered as a theory explaining the process of social change. They interpreted Marxism in a scientistic way as the best method of social research, devoid of ontological theses and claims; they were convinced that philosophical materialism is not an integral part of Marxism. Poland’s interwar Socialist interpretation of Marx’s heritage was not highly sophisticated; this was typical of the  party members of the Labour and Socialist International (Sozialistische Arbeiter-Internationale). The main theoretical authorities for Polish socialists were at that time Karl Kautsky, Otto Bauer, Max Adler. The type of  Marxism represented by these thinkers was an important source of the Polish Socialist Party’s political thought in the interwar period.

Keywords: Polish Socialist Party, marxism, socialism, historical materialism, political thought.


Wołodymyr Rudenko, Notes on the Relationship of Culture and Education (in the Perspective of Post-Soviet Approaches) fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This article investigates the relationships between culture and education. The historical relationship consists in the fact that cultural history is the history of the development of education. The cause-effect relationship consists in the fact that the level of the development of culture marks the level of the development of education and vice versa. A higher level of culture requires a higher level of education. The progress of education becomes the source of the development of culture and enriches it. The material and spiritual elements of culture mark the content of education and teaching. The process relationship between culture and education makes the consideration of education as cultural process possible; through this process, social-cultural functions are realized: the entry of the human being into the world of culture, socialization, transmission of the patterns of human virtues and actions. This article also undertakes challenges of education in post-Communist countries and sketches postulates which according to the author should be realized in the current system of education.

Keywords: educatiuon, culture, technocratism, intellectual culture.


Mateusz Palka, Inhuman Art. How Does the Dachshund Work by Julian Antonisz, or the Non-Eco-Camera fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This article examines the relationships in art between oppositions such as: inside/outside, biological/mechanical, unseen/seen, recorded/shown which appear in the original technique of performing animation directly on film: non-camera by Julian Antonisz. According to McLuhan’s theory of the medium whose content is another means of communication, this contribution analyzes the formal aspects of Antonisz’s film which emphasize the Aufhebung of the oppositions under discussion. The aesthetics of this film which is constituted by a non camera animation technique becomes a medium whose content is the art of transgression.

Keywords: art, aesthetics, animated film, animation, drawn-on-animation, irect animation, animation without camera, transgressive art.

 D  I  S  K  U  S  S  I  O  N  S:

Leszek Kopciuch, Why Is It Not Enough to Be? fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Zofia Majewska,Why Is It Not Enough to Be? fulltext,pdf (in Polish)

Andrzej Niemczuk, Why Is It Not Enough to Be? fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

R  E  V  I  E  W  S:

Leszek Kopciuch, Eugene Kelly. Material Ethics of Value: Max Scheler and Nicolai Hartmann, Springer 2011 fulltext.pdf (in English)

Mateusz Palka, Walter Benjamin, Twórca jako wytwórca. Eseje i rozprawy, tłum. R. Reszke, Wydawnictwo KR, Warszawa 2011 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

R  E  P  O  R  T  S:

Tomasz Siwiec, A Conference Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950): Sources †– Critiques – Continuations, Lublin, 29-30 March 2012 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Tomasz Siwiec, A Conference The Human Being in Culture: Historical and Contemporary Challenges, Lublin, 17-16 May 2012 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Krzysztof Bałękowski, A Philosophical Debate Why Is It Not Enough to Be ?, Lublin, 5 June 2012 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Rafał Czekaj, A Conference A Return of Modernism?, Kazimierz Dolny, 19-€“20 April 2012 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

A  R  C  H  I  V  E  S:

Abstracts of the Papers Delivered at a Conference Nicolai Hartmann (1882-€“1950): Sources -€“ Critiques -€“ Continuations fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Abstracts of the Papers Delivered at a Conference The Human Being in Culture: Historical and Contemporary Challenges fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

T  H  E    A  U  T  H  O  R  S:

KAMIL BAŁĘKOWSKI, student of philosophy in the Department of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, president of the student academic society Episteme.  

RAFAŁ CZEKAJ, doctor, lecturer in the Chair of Aesthetics, Department of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin; his Ph.D. dissertation was entitled Theodor W. Adorno’s Critical Theory of Art;  research interests: philosophical aesthetics, the social contexts of art.

AGATA GRZYB, M.A., graduated from political science and philosophy, doctoral candidate in the Department of Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. She is working on her Ph.D. dissertation about the  ethics of Karl-Otto Apel and the project of the Letztbegruendung of discourse ethics. Research interests: contemporary philosophy, the question of rationality, ethics.

STANISŁAW JANECZEK, professor, dean of the Department of Philosophy,  John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, head of the Chair of the History of Philosophy in Poland. The author of the books: The Christian Enlightenment. From the history of Polish philosophical culture (1994);  Philosophy at the Catholic University of Lublin. Currents –  persons – ideas (1998); Logic or Epistemology? Historical-philosophical determinations of the modern conception of logic (2003); Enlightenment Education and Traditional School. From the history of intellectual and philosophical culture (2008). Research interests:  the  history of modern philosophy, the history of Polish philosophy in the eighteenth and twentieth century, the history of education.

LESZEK KOPCIUCH, habilitated doctor, lecturer in the Chair of the  History of Modern Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. The author of the books The Human Being and History in the Work of Nicolai Hartmann (2007), Freedom and Values. Max Scheler – Nicolai Hartmann – Dietrich von Hildebrand – Hans Reiner (2010) and several dozen scholarly articles;  he carries out research into the history of, mainly German, philosophy and ethics, axiology and the philosophy of history; he translated German-language philosophical texts by, among others, N. Hartmann, R. Carnap, M. Schlick, O. Neurath; editor-in-chief of Culture and Values.

ZOFIA MAJEWSKA, doctor, lecturer in the Chair of the Philosophy of Culture, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. The author of the books: Little Book on Ingarden. A biographical sketch (1995); The Problems of Experience and of the Existence of Values. In the circle of the thought of Edmund Husserl and Roman Ingarden (2010). Research interests: phenomenology and its reception in Poland, the history of Polish philosophy, the philosophy of culture, axiology, the semiotics of culture.

ANDRZEJ NIEMCZUK, habilitated doctor, head of the Chair of Contemporary Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. The author of the books: Philosophy of the Good before the Rise of Axiology (1994); Existential Freedom: Kant and Kierkegaard (1995); The Relationship of Values to Existence. Metaphysical investigations (2005). Current research interests: the philosophy of values; freedom and value as constitutive elements of the subject; the philosophy of evil.

KAMIL PISKAŁA, M.A. in history, doctoral candidate in the Chair of the Recent History of Poland, the University of Łódź. Research interests: the political history of the interwar period, the history of the Polish Left and the tradition of Central European Marxism. His M.A. thesis was concerned with the leading theorist of the Polish Socialist Party, Mieczysław Niedziałkowski. Member of the editorial board of the scholarly journal Praktyka Teoretyczna/Theoretical Practice.

MATEUSZ PALKA, M.A., graduated from cultural studies, doctoral candidate in the Department of Social Sciences, the University of Wrocław. He is working on his Ph.D. dissertation about the conception of allegory in Walter Benjamin; his supervisor is Professor Ryszard Różanowski. Research interests: aesthetics and the history of photography.

TOMASZ SIWIEC, M.A., doctoral candidate in the Chair of Axiology and Social Ethics , Department of Philosophy, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Research interests: the relationship between ethics and aesthetics, the phenomenon of the aesthetization of morality, the philosophy of religion and contemporary German ethics. He is working on his Ph.D. dissertation about Morality as Element of the Experienced World in Contemporary German Ethics. He has published in Filo-Sofija/Philo-Sophia and Ruch Filozoficzny/The Philosophical Movement.  

WOŁODYMYR RUDENKO, habilitated doctor, professor, dean of the Ukrainian-Polish Department, Rovno  Institute of Slavic Studies. The author of the monograph Culturological Basis of the Whole Content of Higher Education (2003) and of the textbooks The Mathematical Methods in Psychology (2009), Mathematical Statistics (2011), The Mathematical-Statistical Methods in Pedagogical Research (2012) and several dozen scholarly articles. He carries out research into the methodology and pedagogy of higher education, civilizing-culturological approach to education.


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