Issue 3/2012

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From the Editorial Board fulltext.pdf (in English)

S  C  H  O  L  A  R  L  Y    A  R  T  I  C  L  E  S:

Andrzej NIEMCZUK, A Fallacy of Theoreticism in Axiology  fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This article presents a new interpretation of and a new of justification for the theory of the naturalistic fallacy in axiology. According to this interpretation the lack of inference between descriptive language and valuing language is caused by the fact that valuing language is practical, whilst  descriptive language is theoretical. Between theory and practice there is freedom which constitutes a lacuna in inference logic. The so-called naturalistic fallacy is presented  in this article as the fallacy of theoreticism. This new interpretation is preceded by a critical analysis of the theories of  D. Hume, I. Kant and G. E. Moore, concerning the question of the naturalistic fallacy.The final part of the article contains a critique of J. Searle’s reasoning which he advanced against the theory of naturalistic fallacy.

Keywords: naturalistic fallacy, duty, practice, freedom.


Adam NOBIS, The Value of Money fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This article aims to examine the question: what exactly is ‚the value’ of money? The author refers to the functional approach, according to which „money is what money does”. He then analyzes a few examples of money, the cultural practices within which it has been used, and also the functions and meanings it has had invested in it. As the conclusion of the article indicates, money has played different roles in various historical contexts, which in each case has shaped its character and value.

Keywords: money, value, the function of money, cultural practices, dollar, guldiner, talent.


Justyna SMOLEŃ-STAROWIEYSKA, The Human Being and A priori Values: Heinrich Rickert’s Theory of Culture fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

For Rickert, who was representative of the Baden School of Neo-Kantians, culture is precisely related to formal, objective values. Absolute valid values determine the a priori ground of culture. In this concept culture can be defined as the area of life in which – in contrast to nature, where everything is left to its own development and shows indifference to the senses – reality is cultivated by man because of universally valid values. Through its cultivation in the real world, in the world of human experience, a timelessness sense derived from the realm of values is introduced. Due to the fact that the universe of values is not homogeneous, but we are in it to deal with different kinds of values, this realization of values in the real world can be done in different ways and on many levels. Specific values are „embodied” in real cultural good as a result of the attitude of individuals, or even whole societies, towards them. However, there is never a situation where all values will have been realized by all people, or by all social groups at one time. On the one hand, therefore, it implies the variety of cultural areas, on the other it is the cause of a multiplicity of cultures.

Keywords: a priori values, culture, the Baden School of Neo-Kantians.


Anna SZKLARSKA, What and Why We Need to Pass by? An Interpretative Suggestion on  a Parable from Thus Spake Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

During every journey, including the journey of life, one has to be able to choose which places are worth visiting and which one can leave out along the way. It is very import_ant to wander consciously. This is the main subject of the parable „On Passing By” from Thus Spake Zarathustra. The passing, avoiding in the title is something different than simply going by. It underlines leaving behind things which aren’t good or interesting enough to hold onto. During our lifetime we collide with different places, situations and phenomena, which aren’t worth getting involved with. In these cases it is better to continue your journey in search of what is more valuable. You must be able to ignore stupidity and evil. The wisdom of Zarathustra is as follows: where you can’t love and what you can’t love, just leave it behind you and go searching for other, new places. Zarathustra agrees with the description of the city presented by the fool. People there are hostile to each other, they live in a hurry but lack any aim or purpose for their chase. They are thoughtless, vain and fair-weathered, dependent on the opinion of others. The city is a perfect place for debauchery. The only virtue that they know there is the official one, according to the rule, convention, accomplished for the recognition of others. The big city in this allegory is a collective man, the existential ‚they-self’ which enslaves us and makes us live like we are supposed to live on various planes. According to Jung, Zarathustra has to sentence himself to life as a recluse and walk away because he is not able to love collective man. From Heidegger’s point of view, freedom is something very hard to preserve, therefore falling into the ‚they-self ‚ is common. The fool disgusts Zarathustra, as with his attitude he testifies against his philosophy, destroying the meaning of his message. The article explains the source of the mistake that the fool commits.

Keywords: Nietzsche, Zarathustra, passing by, the big city, the fool, the collective human being.


Konrad SZOCIK, Influence of Religion on Culture. Contemporary Arguments of Adherents to Secularization fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

This article deals with the main ideas of adherents to secularization, underlying the necessity for a separation between public and religious institutions. Religion is understood only as a private matter, pertaining to the spiritual life of its believers. Arguments for the public marginalization of religion refer to a lack of biblical legitimization for the church as an institution and the possibly negative consequences that are generated by religious ethics. Another matter is weltanschaulich, the neutrality of the state. Adherents to this neutrality speak about cultural and religious pluralism and the specific character of positive religions, which are not intersubjective.

Keywords: Secularization, neutrality, privatization, marginalization, ethics, public sphere, religion, Church.


Filip KUBIACZYK, The Dialectics of “Estar” and the Essence of What Is (Latin) American fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

The problem of identity has been one of the key issues in Latin American culture. The arrival of the European conquistadors in the New World brought an end to ethnic and cultural unity which had existed on the continent thus far. Following the conquest, the first relationship with the Other was established, characterised by military, spiritual and erotic violence. This union would bring forth an illegitimate son, the Mestizo, the offspring of the conquistador and the Indian woman, as well as the Criollo (Creole), a white born in the colonial Latin America. The Latin American Mestizo is typified by an ambivalence of feelings: they do not consider themselves heirs to the indigenous culture, not being able to understand it any more, nor are they heirs to European culture, which they find alien. This is why a feeling of inferiority with regard to the West predominated. The Argentinean philosopher and anthropologist Rodolfo Kusch accounts for this fact in his observation that there are two logoi on the Latin American continent, which may be discerned in two Spanish verbs: ser (to be), expressing identity and nature and estar (to be), expressing condition or state, as well as the speaker’s perception of it. According to Kuscha, the verb estar defines the Indian universe, while the verb ser denotes that which an immigrant brings with them. The culture of ser expresses Western culture, a depositary of individuality, a world of instrumental rationality and contemporaneity. In turn, the culture of estar is not oriented to defining, but is rather more focused on the “here and now”, where the collective dimension takes ascendancy over the individual, and the holistic perspective is superior to the particularistic one. This dichotomy is characteristic of many Latin American thinkers who emphasize that Latin America is different from the Western model. The tonic of ser tends to be masculine, phallic, active and oriented towards problem-solving, accompanied by violence and aggression. Meanwhile the tonic of estar is passive, feminine and oriented towards the biological rhythm of life. As a plain method of ordering the world estar holds more appeal than the intellectual offer of ser, but its strength is of a different type than ser. By nature, estar is diverse, just as vegetation is diversified. This vegetative power of estar infects the entire project of ser across America. In this fashion, ser is absorbed by estar, a process Kusch calls „fagocitación„. By these means, the European culture of ser is Americanized and dissolved into the ordinary estar, creating the final fundament of human existence. Since this process takes place on the margins of what is officially considered to be culture and civilisation, it is not conscious. It is a process that occurs in the more profound layers of culture, where the human experiences the telluric. In Kusch’s view, only this new structure produces what is genuinely Latin American.

Keywords: Rodolfo Kusch, identity, Latin America, coloniality,  estarserfagocitaciónutcatha.


Agata Kłocińska, The Carnival and the Sacred. On the Ludic in Contemporary Culture fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

The carnival is examined in this article. Since Mikhail Bakhtin’s work on this topic, the phenomenon has been a matter of interest for social science. Bakhtin called the carnival an “adverse world”. Referring to this concept, many authors have described modern culture that is in contradiction to the traditional one as having been “carnavalised”. I’m deeply concerned that this concept of “carnavalization” and the notion of “carnival” are often misused. In the philosophical field the phenomenon of the carnival has not been discussed yet. Whereas the author believes it might be a really interesting subject to research. The following article is a philosophical study of the carnival. The concept of the carnival as an „adverse world” lets us emphasize its collocations with the most fundamental metaphysical questions – most importantly, the relation between the human being and the absolute –understood in the article as the sacrum. Referring to Rudolf Otto’s concept, the author considers the sacrum to be something “absolutely different” – something from beyond this world which can never be conceived by the human being. The thesis advanced in the article is that the carnival is a typical ludic phenomenon. Because of this, as in every other form of play, it temporarily transfers us to another world. Studies of the traditional medieval carnival have revealed that the reality a carnival relates to us is the story of salvation. In this sense the carnival draws us towards transcendence. The carnival and Lent together create a structure based on contradictions. Owing to this, they are a trial in conceptualizing the ambivalence which characterizes the numinosum –that which is sacred. Through this structure, the human being, commited in the profanum, tries to approach the sacrum – transcendence reveals itself in immanency. Modern culture is not, in this meaning, a carnival – it only reverses the traditional order of the world.

Keywords: carnavalization, carnival, feast, homo ludens, ludic culture, numinosum, play, sacrum, transcendency, values.

R  E  P  O  R  T  S :

Marcin TRYBULEC, Culture Communication and Cognition. Explaining Cognitive-Cultural Components of Media and Communication, Lublin, 7–9 May 2012 fulltext.pdf (in Pollish)

Piotr PATKOWSKI, Citizen! Who Are You? A Report about Civil Society, Lublin, 18 October 2012 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Agata STRZĄDAŁA, An Experimental Field: Forty Years of Cultural Studies, Wrocław, 10 October  2012 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

T  H  E    A  U  T  H  O  R  S:

AGATA KŁOCIŃSKA, M. A., graduated in philosophy and pedagogy, doctoral candidate in the Chair of the Philosophy of Religion, the Department of Philosophy, the University of Wrocław. She is working on her Ph.D. dissertation about the miracle and theophanic phenomena. Research interests: mysticism, interreligious dialogue, the philosophy of religion.

FILIP KUBIACZYK, doctor, head of the Chair of Iberian Culture in the Department of European Culture, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań; managing editor of the scholarly journal Studia Europaea Gnesnensia. Deputy secretary general of the Poznań Society of Friends of Learning. His research interests focus on Iberian and Latin American culture. The author of the book Between War and Diplomacy. Ferdinand the Catholic and the Foreign Policy of Spain, 1492-1516 (2010) and about thirty articles and scholarly reviews; co-editor of the monograph Spain: Myth or Reality? (2010). He is currently working on his Habilitationsschrift about de-colonial thought in Latin America.

ANDRZEJ NIEMCZUK, habilitated doctor, head of the Chair of Contemporary Philosophy, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. The author of the books: Philosophy of the Good before the Rise of Axiology (1994); Existential Freedom: Kant and Kierkegaard (1995); The Relationship of Values to Existence. Metaphysical investigations (2005). Current research interests: the philosophy of values; freedom and value as constitutive elements of the subject; the philosophy of evil.

ADAM NOBIS, habilitated doctor, profesor extraordinarius in the Department of Cultural Studies, the University of Wrocław. His HabilitationsschriftFrom Emergence to Self-Organization. Problems of the Novelty of Culture (2000). Author of over 140 scholarly publications, including Cultural Change. Between History and Evolution, (Wrocław 2006). Member of the editorial board for Przegląd Kulturoznawczy, editor-in-chief of the journal Kultura – Historia – Globalizacja (khg.uni.wroc.pl).  

PIOTR PATKOWSKI, student of Law, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin.

JUSTYNA SMOLEŃ-STAROWIEYSKA, doctor, lecturer in the Chair of the History of Modern and Contemporary Christian Philosophy, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw. Her doctoral dissertation was entitled The Human Being and Values: Heinrich Rickert’s Theory of Culture (2008). Research interests: the history of modern and contemporary philosophy; German philosophy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries; the philosophy of values; the philosophy of culture; the philosophy of life; contemporary philosophical anthropology and the philosophy of technology.

ANNA SZKLARSKA, M.A., graduated in philosophy, doctoral candidate at the Department of Philosophy, Jagellonian University in Cracow. She is currently at work on her Ph.D. dissertation, The Problem of Violence in the Modern Philosophy of the Human Being. Research interests: the history of modern and contemporary philosophy, philosophical anthropology, ethics, axiology, social philosophy, with an emphasis on the problematics of violence.

KONRAD SZOCIK, M.A., graduated in philosophy, doctoral candidate in the Department of Philosophy, Jagellonian University in Cracow. Wrote his Ph.D. dissertation on the genesis and development of atheism in European philosophy and its critique from the perspective of Thomist philosophy; the author of several publications about philosophical atheism, the philosophy of religion and the history of ideas.

MARCIN TRYBULEC, doctor, lecturer in the Chair of Ontology and Epistemology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. Research interests: epistemological aspects in the workings of the media in social communication; the categories of subjectivity and of the extended mind in theories of communication.


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