Issue 3(7) /2013

VALUES – CULTURE – HISTORY: IN THE CIRCLE OF RUSSIAN PHILOSOPHY

ed. by Andrzej Ostrowski

Wypedzenie28.02.jpg From the Editorial Board fulltext.pdf in English

T  H  E  M  E  D     A   R   T   I   C   L   E   S:

Andrzej Ostrowski, Introduction fulltext.pdf in English


Janusz Dobieszewski, Philosophy of religion: contemporary horizons PDF Datei in Polnisch mit Zusammenfassung in Englisch und Deutsch

The paper attempts to delineate the relationships between religion and philosophy, in particular their mutually conducive influence – religion is a catalyst of philosophy’s metaphysical dimension while philosophy is a shield that protects religion from fundamentalism. Furthermore, the article focuses also on the one-sided analysis of religion as a marker of political conservatism and offers brief insights into the post-secular tendency evident in the twentieth-century scholarly take on religion.

Keywords: philosophy, religion, metaphysics, post-secularism.


Vladimir Belov, A few remarks on Russian neo-kantianism fulltext.pdf (in German)

The article is devoted to the analysis of the development of neokantianism in Russia. In particular, the paper attempts to pinpoint the originality of Russian neokantianism, which – as the present author posits and contextualises – stems from the cultural and historical peculiarities of the formation of the Russian philosophical thought. The stages and specific character of the development of Russian neokantianism are discussed on the basis of the philosophical ideas and intellectual concepts of A. I. Vvedenskij, B. V. Jakovenko, and V. E. Sesemann.
Keywords: neokantianism, neokantianism in Russia, Vvedenskij, Jakovenko, Sesemann

>Cezar Jędrysko, The philosophers have only interpreted the world – the point is to transfigure it. The philosophical project of Nikolai Fedorov and Nikolai Berdyaev fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

The aim of this paper is to present, on the basis of two different thinkers – Nikolai Fedorov and Nikolai Berdyaev, a new philosophical project which diverges from the common understanding of philosophy, popularly construed as an attempt to describe reality. Instead, this new philosophical project angles towards active eschatology. Called after Berdyaev “the philosophy of creativity”, this project is an example of one of the primary characteristics of the Russian philosophical thought in question – the need and insistence on applying theory, on complementing philosophy with across-the-board praxis, with employment and practice that reach beyond the confines of academic philosophy.    Drawing on the thought of Fedorov and Berdyaev, the article attempts to privide an apt answer to the elementary question of dialectics of creativity formulated by Władysław Stróżewski: “Why doesn’t there exist something that potentially could (or should) exist?” Firstly, select conditions that allow the possibility of creativity – Fedorov’s and Berdyaev’s ontological presumptions about the world are examined. Secondly, reasons justifying the necessity of the creative act, i.e., the rationale behind creating something new and unleashing it onto the world, are duly considered and elaborated on.

Keywords: Fedorov, Berdyaev, creativity, resurrection, Russian philosophy


Ewa Cichocka, Remarks on the Specificity of Art in the Writings of Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

The article discusses Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s and Lev Tolstoy’s definitions of art. The former believes art’s defining feature to be the creation of beauty. This beauty, though, does not belong solely to the sphere of aesthetics, but also to that of ethics. According to Tolstoy, we should not contend ourselves with a definition based on beauty, but rather look for another, general perspective, which would allow us to unequivocally decide what is and what is not art. Eventually, Tolstoy reaches the conclusion that art is a kind of a medium distinguished from other forms of interpersonal communication by its ability to transmit feelings. Both Russians agree as to art’s enormous powers of affecting man and believe it capable of saving the world.

Keywords: art, beauty, good, Christianity.

Edyta Domagała, The rationale behind erotic love in Vladimir Solovyov’s thought fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Vladimir Solovyov’s concept of erotic love represents a rather original theosophical vision of this issue for his theory of love is closely connected with eschatological matters and, in addition to that, constitutes the product of materialistic (strictly biological) and spiritualist presentation of the subject in question. Solovyov’s philosophical analyses of sexual love demonstrate that intercourse is not so much an act that exceeds purely biological level as the one that causes transformation of our biological nature and consists in over-spiritualisation and divinisation (deification) of our nature. The meaning of erotic love, as construed by Solovyov, lays in creating a widely understood unity based on attaining a spiritual and bodily integrity as well as overcoming disintegration connected with the existence of gender, that is integrating the female and male principle of human existence.

Keywords: Vladimir Solovyov, erotic love, Eros, androgyny, procreation

Halina Rarot, Nicholas Berdyaev`s Russian personalism fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

The article presents Nicholas Berdyaev’s personalistic view. The Russian thinker is usually – especially in the western tradition – called a religious existentialist and as such is situated alongside Lev Shestov. This is not a fully legitimate and sound interpretation of Berdyaev’s philosophical work, which will be proven in the article. In existentialism the starting point is the existence of an individual, while personalism is concerned with the relational and communitarian person. Ultimately, Bierdyaev’s thinking is closer to dialogism (personalistic) than to existentialism

Keywords: person, personalism, Russian personalism, dialectic of individualism, personalist civilisation.

Justyna Kroczak, Pavel Florensky’s philosophical sympathies and antipathies fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

The paper is an attempt to present Pavel Florensky’s philosophical inspirations and criticism as well as their influences on his own philosophy. The issue appears to be a thorny one as attested to by among others German researcher Micheal Hagemeister whose article is quoted and discussed at length. The ambiguity of Florensky’s outlook and his intellectual constructs, their both “genius” and “inhuman” character – as construed by some researchers and interpreters – seems to be the result of his Platonic and Eastern Orthodox inspirations as well as of criticism of Kantianism. To Florensky, Kantianism personifies Western rationalism, which in turn is absolutely antithetical to the so-called Russian soul.

Keywords: Pavel Florensky, Kant, Hagemeister, Seraphion Mashkin, symbol, Plato

Natalia Danilkina, Ideas of freedom and harmony in philosophical pedagogics in the era of Russian revolutions fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English and German

The historical period primarily considered in the article starts in the late 19th century and finishes in the 1920s when the Civil war in Russia was over. For a certain timespan, the principles of free education rooted in relevant philosophical traditions and expressed in practical models of school organisation both in Russia and in the West were broadly discussed. Some authors, including L.N. Tolstoy and K.N. Wentzel, link the idea of freddom in theory and practice with the idea of harmony, conceived as the peaceful unity of an individual element and the whole universe.

Keywords: freedom, harmony, free education, philosophy of education, Russian revolution, Tolstoy, Wentzel.

O T  H  E  R     A   R   T   I   C   L   E   S:

Bogumił Chmiel, Reason in mediaevel philosophy fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

The article discusses the principal aspects of mediaeval understanding of the nature of theoretical mind. The scholarly focus is placed upon the relationship between the mind as an autonomous cognitive faculty and the authorities of the Church, the faith, and theology. In meadiaeval philosophy, the autonomy of the mind was not contingent upon absolute independence from the above-mentioned authorities but it was realised within religious thinking forged under their direct influence. Religious tenets and dogmas were not construed in the Middle Ages as “external” limitations and impositions affecting rational thinking, which on its own was not supposed to be transgressive and defiant. Instead, tenets and dogmas served as signposts – they provided direction, scope, and aims of potential and proper philosophical endeavour. In conflictual situations, philosophers did not passively follow the authorities’ stringent guidelines but attempted to resort to a number of intellectual strategies with a view to being able to teach the questionable philosophical theses without being cast out by the clergy. The evaluative disparities regarding rationality, as present in scholarly research conducted by historians, stem primarily from the projection of Enlightenment canons of rationality onto earlier epochs.
Keywords: mediaevel philosophy, rationalism, reason, theology.

 

R  E  P  O  R  T  S :

Honorata Jakuszko, „Philosophy 2.0. Paradigms – Values – Institutions” Conference, Białystok 17-18 October 2013 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

Leszek Kopciuch, “Words – Entities – Globality” Conference, Wrocław 18 October 2013 fulltext.pdf (in Polish)

 

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