Issue 4(8) /2013

 

PROBLEMS AND APPROACHES  IN AXIOLOGY AND ETHICS

ed. by Leszek Kopciuch and Tomasz Siwiec

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From the Editorial Board fulltext.pdf (in English)

Leszek Kopciuch, Tomasz Siwiec, Introduction fulltext.pdf (in English)

Peter Knauer SJ,Ethikbegründung heute fulltext.pdf (in German with summary in English and Polish)

T H E M E D   A R T I C L E S:

Arno Anzenbacher, Begründungsformen der Ethik fulltext.pdf (in German with summary in English)

In this article I attempt to present an overview of the forms of justifying ethics. I begin with outlining five concepts considered classical and are central in terms of their historical impact; I then move on to compare them, concluding with selected contemporary forms of justification and their relation to classical concepts.

Keywords: forms of justifying ethics, Thomas Aquinas, Hume, Nietzsche, utilitarianism, Jonas, feminist ethics.


Dieter Birnbacher, Moral and other Values fulltext.pdf in English (with sumary in German and Polish)

What constitutes moral values and norms in comparison with other kinds of values and norms? What makes moral values different from political, aesthetic or personal values? At first sight, these questions seem to have an easy answer. On a closer look, however, difficulties abound. The concept of morality seems to defy a definition by necessary and sufficient conditions. By approaching the question ex negative, the article attempts to do away with a few „myths” about morality current in analytical meta-ethics and, in conclusion, to offer some suggestions of how the concept of morality might be explained without recourse to a definition per genus et differentiam.

Keywords: Morality, moral values, definition, necessary and sufficient conditions.


Christoph Hubig, Wie kommen wir zu unseren Werten und wie verbindlich können sie sein? fulltext.pdf (in German with summary in English)

The postmodern society is typified by the plurality of values and normative attitudes. With this axiological rainbow of the liberal society, conflicts are inevitable; these ultimately appear in debates over values. Where is the “binding force”, a guarantee of a normative stability of society, to be found? To answer this question, the essence of moral values must be understood and reiterated. The author seeks a definition of values in relation to action theory (aims, motivations, means and preferences). Thus defined, value becomes the starting point in the quest for a principle regulating conflicts of values, as well as a cornerstone for axiology understood as “the science of conflicts”. Formulating “the philosophical grammar of values” is a precondition for a pedagogic focus on values and a guarantee of axiological pluralism, which is the basis of liberal democracy.

Keywords: plurality of values, conflicts of values, action theory, focus on values.


Krzysztof Serafin, Ogólna teoria wartości w filozofii Marii Gołaszewskiej fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English)

The aim of the article is to present and develop an interpretation of general theory of value on the basis of the aesthetic works of Maria Gołaszewska. Taking as a starting point for her axiological inquiries selected concepts of Roman Ingarden, Gołaszewska contributed significantly to the Polish axiological thought of the second half of the 20th century. The first part of the article concerns the methodological background of the axiological reflection developed by Gołaszewska. The second part explicates the application of Ingarden’s concept of “relatively isolated systems” to the analysis of a systematic approach of axiological universum. The third part focuses on the concept of “axiological situation” and analyses key aspects of a value: its object and subject structure, its conceptions as a possibility residing in being, and as a relation of meanings.

Keywords: phenomenology, general axiology, existential status of values, “axiological situation”, Maria Gołaszewska.


Monika Torczyńska, Wartość, dobro, szczęście w koncepcji Tadeusza Czeżowskiego. Konteksty współczesne fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English)

The aim of the present paper is to interpret select concerns and ideas inherent in the philosophical and ethical thought of Tadeusz Czeżowski, contextualised in the contemporary social reality. The meaning and the potential relationships linking the categories of values, the notion of good, and the criteria of values are the ever up-to-date and relevant practical problems, crucial not only to academic debates but to everyday social praxis as well. An important element of the paper is the analysis of the concept of happiness and potential means of attaining it, as posited by Czeżowski. This ingredient of Czeżowski’s thought has thus far been marginalised in the scholarship devoted to the subject in question. The present paper attempts to bridge the gap between the academic centre and the periphery.

Keywords: ethics, value, good, happiness, suffering.

O T H E R  A R T I C L E S :

Dominika Boroń, Existing Thinker as Hermenutic Thinker. Søren Kierkegaard’s Critique of the Objective Thought  in the Perspective of Odo Marquard’s Hermeneutics fulltext.pdf (in English)

In my article I attempt to introduce a trailblazing juxtaposition of two philosophers whose ideas interweave in most inspiring way. I see Kierkegaard’s revolutionary approach to communicating and defining truth as the beginning of the modern philosophy of language and meaning. It leads to an evolution of understanding the time of human life, the anthropology of human knowledge, and to the final repudiation of the objective truth that we are witnessing in modernity. Marquard, whose thought is deeply rooted in Kierkegaard’s oeuvre, gives us a great synthesis of modern thought. Kierkegaard’s and Marquard’s shared concern for the human condition and aligned aloofness for the arrogance of pure reason enable the reader to see them as different soldiers fighting the same battle. Therefore Marquard’s ideas serve as an inspiring filter to interpret Kierkegaard once again as a genius of anticipation and a source of timeless insight into modernity.

Keywords: existence, anthropology, time, absolute reason, objective thinker, subjective thinker, hermeneutics, communication.


Agne Dorelaitiene, Age as Original Sociocultural Construct in Tradition, Modern and Postmodern Societies: what does it mean to be a young person? fulltext.pdf (in English)

The sociocultural construction of age with objective and subjective meanings has been changing along with the development of society. Traditional, modern, and postmodern societies all have their own challenges related to the life course of the individual. The individual finds themselves in transition from the institutionalization and standardization of the course of life to deinstitutionalization, individualization, and de-standardization. For this reason, age as a sociocultural construct can be analyzed as a dynamic and reflexive phenomenon. Analysis of the perception of age is important in the social sciences, as it has the potential to reveal various issues in our society. In particular, this is important in discussions about youth and adulthood – in contemporary society, age is not exactly the main variable defining the group of society an individual belongs to. The aim of this paper is to analyse changes relating to age as a sociocultural construct in order to reveal what it means to be a young person with respect to tradition, both modern and postmodern. The construction of age has been analysed with recourse to T. Parsons’s structural functionalism theory, A. Giddens’ structuration theory as well as Beck’s approach to modern and postmodern society, life cycle theory.

Keywords: age, traditional society, modern society, postmodern society, Giddens, Beck, Parsons, young person, youth.


Vladimir Goncharov, Rola wartości i religii w procesie kształcenia współczesnego nauczyciela na Ukrainie fulltext.pdf (in Polish with summary in English)

The purpose of the article is to showcase the role of education in the proces of forming positive values in the Ukrainian socjety. The author concludes that instilling in prospective teachers the ability to re-enact and cultivate national and cultural traditions, shaping their moral values as well as encouraging individual and personal approaches to teaching constitute the necessary conditions that are indispensable to the proper and well-rounded education of future teaching professionals.

Keywords: Ukraine, education, national tradition, culture, religion, teacher.


Andrzej Kapusta, Understanding in psychopathology and engaged epistemology fulltext.pdf (in English)

The article outlines the problem of understanding mental disorders and the proposed distinctions significant in terms of all research done in the context of the philosophy of psychiatry. Inspired by the phenomenological and hermeneutic approach, engaged epistemology is presented as a tool which helps to reveal the significant aspects of mental illness and psychopathology. By revealing the embodiment and the deep relation between the body and the outside world, engaged epistemology allows for a description of the dimensions of psychotic experience, as well as a more in-depth analysis of particular psychopathologies (and the  related  disorders of identity,  lack of  sense of reality  and problems in relations  with others). Scientists studying the phenomenological tradition made efforts to reliably describe the subjective experience of patients, and to critically evaluate the scientific ability to study illnesses. The hermeneutical critique of psychiatry, in turn, resorts to revealing its socio-cultural background which determines the horizon for objective, scientific, clinical research

Keywords: philosophy of psychiatry, phenomenology, psychopathology, mental illness, engaged epistemology.


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